Thursday, October 02, 2014
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Discovery of Vietnam and Cambodia - 12 days
Day 4 Hanoi - Hue (B/L)  (650km – 1h00: by plane) After breakfast, transfer to the airport to take your morning flight to Hue. Between 1802 and 1945, Hue was the imperial capital of the Nguyen Dynasty. As such, it is well known for its monuments and architecture. Its population stands at about 340,000 people...
Vietnam Discovery - 12 Days Day 1 HANOI - arrival Welcome at the airport and transfer to your selected hotel. Overnight in Hanoi. Day 2 HANOI city (B/L) After breakfast, spend your day taking a tour around the capital...
Vietnam Classic Tour from Hanoi - 14 Days
  Day 1  HANOI arrival (D) When arriving, welcome at the airport and transfer to your selected hotel. Visit the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum (outside), his former residence, One Pillar Pagoda, Temple of Literature, Hoan Kiem Lake,...
Heritages in Vietnam - 15 days
Day 1 HANOI - arrival
When arriving in Hanoi, transfer to your selected hotel. Overnight in Hanoi. Day 2 HANOI (B/L)...

Tourism News

  • The garden of white dwarfs

    ‘Strange objects, which persist in showing a type of spectrum out of keeping with their luminosity, may ultimately teach us more than a host which radiate according to the rule. '

    Arthur Eddington (1922)

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  • The Middle East and North Africa

    Do you know where the Middle East is?

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  • A marksman and a train

    A marksman and a train
    The Principle of Inertia gives a privileged status to the set of reference frames moving at constant velocity in that the laws of Nature take their natural form ‘at rest’. Galilean relativity, and subsequently Einstein’s Special Relativity, are both based on the equivalence of inertial reference frames and those moving with uniform translation.
    However, it is not enough just to determine the nature of the inertial reference frames. Given a description of natural phenomena in one reference frame, a physicist must be able to describe them in any other; he needs formulae allowing him to pass from one frame to another. It is on this crucial point that Galilean relativity and Special Relativity differ.
    Einstein’s favourite way of illustrating these abstract notions was to take the example of a train travelling along an embankment at a constant velocity of 108 km/h, or v = 30 m/s. We have two inertial reference frames, the train and the embankment, the embankment representing space at rest, with respect to which the train is moving at a constant velocity. Now imagine that a man perched on the roof of one of the carriages fires a bullet in the same direction as the train is travelling. The velocity of the bullet with respect to the man is 800 m/s.
    Using the Galilean transformation formulae to transfer from the train‘s inertial reference frame to the embankment's inertial reference frame, the velocity of the bullet measured by an observe on the embankment is given by v + v' = 830 m/s. If the man through 180° and fires in the direction from which the train has jug come, the velocity of the bullet, measured from the embankment, is v - v' = 770 m/s. In accord with common sense, the Galileos transformation formulae can be reduced to a simple vectorial addition of velocities.
    The Principle of Inertia gives a privileged status to the set of reference frames moving at constant velocity in that the laws of Nature take their natural form ‘at rest’. Galilean relativity, and subsequently Einstein’s Special Relativity, are both based on the equivalence of inertial reference frames and those moving with uniform translation.
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  • The Mediterranean countries

    The three southern peninsulas of Western Europe—the Iberian, the Italian, and the Balkan—have much in common. Each peninsula was once the center of a great civilization. Each also looks out on the deep blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. It is these waters, along with the tall mountains and steep hills, that have long helped to shape life throughout the region. The Mediterranean countries in Western Europe are Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.
    The Economy
    Natural resources in the Mediterranean countries are less plentiful than in the neighboring countries. As a result, many of the people in the Mediterranean countries earn less money and have a lower standard of living than other European people.
    The mountains of the Mediterranean countries are not rich, though they have some natural resources. Spain has iron ore. Several countries have copper. There is some lead in Greece and uranium in Portugal. However, no country has all the resources needed to build industry, so most raw materials have to be shipped from other places.
    Farming in the Mediterranean countries is difficult. In summer, the hot sun dries out the soil. In winter, the rains wash away the topsoil. Therefore, many Mediterranean farmers grow crops that do not need much water. They plant olive and lemon trees and grapes. Wheat, dairy products, and other foodstuffs are purchased from other parts of the world.
    Because the soil is so poor in the Mediterranean countries, many people must look to the sea for a living. Fish is an important source of food and a vital export for the Mediterranean people. Spain
    Spain is one of the two countries on the Iberian Peninsula. Madrid, the capital of Spain, lies in the center of the country.
    Since the 1950’s, Spain’s economy has been growing rapidly. Today more Spanish people live in cities and work in industry than live on farms. Despite such growth, Spain still imports more goods than it exports.
    One way Spain gets money to pay for imports is from the tourist business. Another source of money is from Spaniards who work abroad. For example, while West Germany’s businesses were booming, many Spaniards went there as guest workers. Guest workers are people who earn money in another country. Guest workers help the economy of the country they work in by providing workers and the economy of their own country by sending money home.
    Portugal
    This Southern European country shares the Iberian Peninsula with Spain. Lisbon, a beautiful port city on the west coast, is the capital of Portugal.
    Unlike Spain, Portugal is not an industrialized country. More Portuguese live in the country than in the cities. However, Portugal shares the Mediterranean problems of poor farmland, high unemployment, and the need to import much of its food.
    Italy
    Rome is the capital of Italy. A busy manufacturing and trading center, Rome is important for another reason as well. Each year thousands of tourists visit the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church at Vatican City. Vatican City is an independent country within the city of Rome. Italy is the richest and most industrialized nation in the Mediterranean. Yet it must import coal, iron, oil, and copper.
    How, then, have the Italians been able to build industry?
    Like the Austrians and the Swiss, the Italian people have used the Alps to help run their country. Power stations have
    been built along many Italian rivers. They supply cities in the northern part of the
    country with inexpensive hydroelectric power.
    Most of Italy’s factories are in the north. Rich northern cities like Turin, Genoa, and Milan are the heart of Italys industry, banking, and trade. Southern Italy, in contrast, is mostly farmland. One of Italy’s greatest economic problems today is the division between the northern and southern parts of the country. The people of northern Italy have more money on the average than people who live in southern Italy. For many years, thousands of workers have been leaving the south to find jobs in the north.
    Italy’s government is trying to help the south. Some programs provide farmers with water for irrigation or loans for tractors and other farm equipment. The government has also built a few industries in the south, including an automobile factory and a large steel mill. However, poverty and lack of jobs are still great problems in southern Italy.
    Greece
    The ancient city of Athens is the cap¬ital of Greece and its largest city. Today about one fourth of all Greeks live in or near Athens.
    Quite a number of people live in small villages, which today look much the way they did hundreds of years ago. Most families in a village have a few goats that they raise for milk. The women make some of the goats’ milk into a cheese called feta. Women also use hand looms to weave blankets and colorful rugs, which are later sold at markets. Greek farmers grow tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. They also raise wine grapes and tend olive trees. Tilling the rocky soil is backbreaking work. Yet even with hard work, it is difficult to make a living. Every year more and more Greeks go to the cities to find work. Others leave for more prosperous countries in Western Europe.
    Shipping and shipbuilding are important in Greece, as in other Mediterranean countries. Also, as in other Mediterranean countries, tourism is a big business. Millions of people come to see the ruins of ancient Greece. Through tourism, the Greek people have turned the past into an important resource.
    The three southern peninsulas of Western Europe—the Iberian, the Italian, and the Balkan—have much in common. Each peninsula was once the center of a great civilization. Each also looks out on the deep blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. It is these waters, along with the tall mountains and steep hills, that have long helped to shape life throughout the region. The Mediterranean countries in Western Europe are Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.
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